El papel de los organismos reguladores y su independencia

La actual Comisión Nacional de los Mercados y la Competencia (CNMC), creada al amparo de la Ley 3/2013, como fruto de la fusión de ocho reguladores sectoriales, nació con la vocación de disponer, para el cumplimiento de sus fines, con autonomía orgánica y funcional y plena independencia del Gobierno.

La constitución del nuevo Consejo del macroorganismo regulador, y el consabido cese de los consejeros de la extinta CMT,  supuso la impugnación del cese, por parte del anterior Presidente de la CMT y uno de los consejeros, ante los Tribunales (TS), alegando infracción de la Directiva marco de telecomunicaciones, al haber sido cesados en sus funciones antes de la expiración de sus mandatos, sin que existiera causa legal taxativamente prevista en el Derecho nacional.

Expuesto el litigio principal y con vistas a su resolución, el Tribunal Supremo decidió suspender el procedimiento y solicitar al Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea (TJUE) respuesta a dos cuestiones prejudiciales referentes a la interpretación de la Directiva Marco.

El TJUE, en su sentencia de  19 de octubre de 2016, declaró que la Directiva Marco debe interpretarse en el sentido de que “no se opone a una norma nacional que consiste en fusionar distintos reguladores nacionales de diversos sectores, para crear un organismo de reglamentación multisectorial, siempre que éste cumpla los requisitos de competencia, independencia, imparcialidad y transparencia

establecidos por la Directiva Marco y que las decisiones que adopte puedan ser objeto de un recurso efectivo ante un organismo independiente de las partes implicadas”.

Respecto del cese de los cargos, ordenado antes de la finalización de sus mandatos, el TJUE establece que  resulta contrario a la Directiva marco el hecho de que el Presidente y un Consejero, miembros del  órgano colegial que dirige la autoridad de reglamentación fusionada, sean cesados antes de la finalización de sus mandatos, siempre que no estén previstas reglas que garanticen que tal cese no menoscaba su independencia e imparcialidad”.

De este modo resalta el TJUE que “Si se admitiera el riesgo de cese inmediato por una razón distinta de las previamente establecidas por la ley, podría generar dudas razonables en cuanto a la neutralidad de la autoridad regulatoria afectada y a su impermeabilidad a los factores externos y menoscabar su independencia, su imparcialidad y su autoridad”.

Avalada por el TJUE la posibilidad de fusionar en una única autoridad de reglamentación diversas autoridades nacionales de reglamentación, -siempre que se garantice su independencia- resulta inevitable cuestionarse si se diluirá como azucarillo en el agua, el pacto que en parte, sustentó en fecha 28 de agosto de 2016, la formación del Gobierno en España:

Así pues, la incógnita es si existirá una Autoridad Independiente de los Mercados que asumirá las funciones de supervisión y control de los distintos sectores económicos regulados (energético, telecomunicaciones, audiovisual, transportes, servicios postales, a los que se sumará el juego) y de resolución de conflictos entre operadores económicos.”

Y por otra parte,  una Autoridad Independiente de Defensa de la Competencia que asumirá las funciones de promoción de la competencia, de aplicación de la normativa española y europea de defensa de la competencia y de garantía de la unidad de mercado.

A ello se suma, la amenaza de sanción de la Comisión Europea al Gobierno de España, por incorrecta transposición de la Directiva 2009/72/CE sobre mercado interior de la electricidad, en relación con la independencia de la autoridad nacional de reglamentación, lo que obligaría a traspasar al regulador la fijación de los peajes eléctricos, y no sólo la función de establecer la metodología de peajes.

Por tanto se anticipan cambios en la casa del Regulador, de momento con un futuro incierto y en el que aún quedan algunas cuestiones por resolver. ¿Se llevará a cabo la separación de la CNMC en dos entidades? ¿Cuándo? ¿Se le garantizará la debida independencia? Porque, claro está, que al regulador se le denomine “Autoridad Independiente” no es de por sí, ni garantía, ni plena, de su debida independencia.

Irene Bartol


26 comentarios en “El papel de los organismos reguladores y su independencia

  1. Muy buen artículo, claro, conciso y bien expuesto.
    Creo que no solo es necesario hablar de la independencia jurídica, sino también de la independencia económica que ha sido un fallo en el diseño institucional actual del que se carecía en el diseño institucional anterior (CNE, CMT, etc) y que menoscaba la operatividad de dichas instituciones.

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